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Ward & Whipple [published 1918]
by Mol Smith

For many decades the definitive guide to identifying microscopic living forms in freshwater has been the Fresh-Water Biology book authored by Henry Baldwin Ward and George Chandler Whipple, helped by a team of collaborators. This was first published in 1918 and although classifications regarding species and sub-species has shifted and changed (with resulting confusion) over the years, I believe it still stands, nearly 100 years later as a remarkable and invaluable guide. The illustrations - I assume before early cameras could be employed on a microscope - to me, serve even today as more powerful visual aids than modern photography.

As far as we can tell, the book is now outside its copyright and is considered in the public domain. Google has had it digitised and made it available to read online or download for personal use.

   The Google digitised version can be downloaded or read on line  
 directly here...  

    You can download a copy in several formats here...   

[ courtesy of https://archive.org/ ]

I just located a non-Google copy which you can download and make use of. Get it From here.

Most people involved with studying fresh water life are already aware of this beautiful work, but perhaps you're not? If you are using a microscope to look at microscopic organisms in ponds and streams, this is a great resource for helping you to identify the little critters.

Page 590. Extraordinary attention to detail in these illustrations.
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Page 484. Detailed diagrammatic reference..
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Page 1180. Part of the definitive index
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Save and Print out a copy here on your computer Save and Print out a copy here on your computer Save and Print out a copy here on your computer

A lot of small commercial enterprises are now reprinting this book and selling on Amazon, often for 30.00 or more, but invariably they have not paid attention to the fine details and you may be disappointed. Downloading a personal copy is the best way to go. You can search the pdf file internally using 'find' to look up what you wish to know.


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